For speleothems with ages beyond this, the recently developed U-Pb in the speleothem chronometer provides a viable alternative.
(B) Flake with cortical surface and no butt, of quartzite. One stratigraphic horizon, PLI-H1 of complex I below the archaeological complex III, and three horizons VM3, PLIV-M and PLIV-S of complex IV above the archaeological complex III (Fig. Correspondence to Véronique Michel or Chuan-Chou Shen or Marie-Hélène Moncel.
The first “Out of Africa” migrations represent a seminal event in the history of humankind.
At the gates of Europe, the first appearance of Hominins is recorded in Georgia, 1.8 million years ago (Ma); however, the picture of migration across the continent remains incomplete.
Geographical distribution of Pleistocene sites with Oldowayen culture in the circum-Mediterranean, Western Europe region discussed in the main text.
Symbols with yellow borders are the sites where multiple dating methods, including radiometric techniques, were applied.